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Friday, December 2, 2022

NASA Will Not Change the James Webb Telescope’s Identify

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James Webb led NASA within the Fifties and 60s, throughout the Chilly Conflict–period “Lavender Scare,” when authorities companies usually enforced insurance policies that discriminated in opposition to homosexual and lesbian federal staff. For that motive, astronomers and others have lengthy referred to as for NASA to vary the title of the James Webb House Telescope. Earlier this 12 months, the area company agreed to finish a full investigation into Webb’s suspected position within the remedy and firing of LGBTQ workers.

This afternoon, NASA launched that long-awaited report by the company’s chief historian Brian Odom. In an accompanying press launch, NASA officers made clear that the company is not going to change the telescope’s title, writing: “Based mostly on the out there proof, the company doesn’t plan to vary the title of the James Webb House Telescope. Nevertheless, the report illuminates that this era in federal coverage—and in American historical past extra broadly—was a darkish chapter that doesn’t replicate the company’s values in the present day.”

Odom was tasked with discovering what proof, if any, hyperlinks Webb to homophobic insurance policies and selections. Monitoring down proof of contentious 60-year-old occasions made for a tough topic of research, Odom says, however he was ready to attract on loads of materials from the Nationwide Archives in School Park, Maryland, and the Truman Library. “I took this investigation very significantly,” he says.

These allegations embody these made by NASA worker Clifford Norton, who filed a lawsuit claiming that he had been fired in 1963 after he was seen in a automotive with one other man. He was taken into police custody, his lawsuit states, and NASA safety subsequently introduced him to the company’s headquarters and interrogated him all through the night time. He was later terminated from his job.

Such remedy of federal workers suspected to be homosexual or lesbian was commonplace on the time, following a 1953 govt order by President Dwight Eisenhower, which listed “sexual perversion” among the many sorts of behaviors thought-about suspicious. Nonetheless, the NASA report states, “No proof has been positioned exhibiting Webb knew of Norton’s firing on the time. As a result of it was accepted coverage throughout the federal government, the firing was, extremely probably—although, sadly—thought-about unexceptional.”

The report and NASA’s announcement frustrate critics who for years have been making a case to vary JWST’s title. “Webb has at greatest an advanced legacy, together with his participation within the promotion of psychological warfare. His actions didn’t earn him a $10 billion monument,” wrote Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, an astrophysicist on the College of New Hampshire, and three different astronomers and astrophysicists in a assertion on Substack in the present day. They query the interpretation {that a} lack of specific proof implies that Webb had no information of, or hand in, firings inside his personal company, writing: “In such a situation, we’ve got to imagine he was comparatively incompetent as a pacesetter: the administrator of NASA ought to know if his chief of safety is extrajudicially interrogating individuals.”

Prescod-Weinstein believes the timing of this launch—on the Friday afternoon earlier than the Thanksgiving vacation—isn’t a coincidence, a strategy to make the report much less broadly learn. “The truth that they did it regardless that it’s LGBT STEM Day tells you concerning the administration’s priorities,” she wrote in an e-mail to WIRED.

NASA normally names telescopes after distinguished astronomers, just like the Hubble, Spitzer, Chandra, and Compton telescopes. Webb is an exception. He led the company whereas it superior the area program towards the moon touchdown and promoted astronomy analysis, however he was a bureaucrat, not an astronomer.

Although company officers made the decision to maintain Webb’s title, Odom says, “We should always nonetheless use this historical past for instance of a previous that was traumatic for lots of people. This previous, no matter Webb’s position in it was, is essential to us going ahead.”

That NASA is selecting to not rename the telescope is “not shocking, however disappointing,” says Ralf Danner, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory astronomer and cochair of the American Astronommical Society’s committee for sexual orientation and gender minorities in astronomy. Whether or not Webb knew of Norton’s remedy, or whether or not proof of that exists, isn’t actually related, Danner argues, since Webb stood for these insurance policies as NASA administrator. “He’s simply the improper title to point out the way forward for astronomy.”

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